PSN-L Email List Message
Subject: Sensor Type (was Pendulum Q)
From: Roger Sparks rsparks@..........
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 2007 23:08:01 -0800
Randle, Thanks for the thought provoking response.
I can understand what you are saying about direct coupled sensing of
pendulums, but I think I am correct in saying that your comments are
limited to sensors that actually extract some power from the pendulum
motion. A sensing system that (for instance) that counted area
sweeping past a camera in a time period should not count as a direct
I am using a magnetic/coil sensing system with a heavy damper. The
system is near or even more than critically damped. My sensing magnet
and coil are not providing much load on the pendulum, most of the energy
captured by the pendulum is dissipated in the damper. I certainly
agree that my sensing system is really acceleration based as it does
load and reduce the pendulum speed. The sensor also acts to accelerate
the pendulum from a standing start when a wave arrives. These are two
reasons to describe the system as an acceleration sensor.
Despite these acceleration events, I have described my sensor as a
velocity device. I do this because maximum output of the sensor occurs
when the pendulum is moving at maximum velocity. Or at least that is
what I believe is happening.
I think of my pendulum as being set in motion by my direct coupled
damper, direct coupled sensor, supporting spring, hinge, and surrounding
air. The sequence of events is: (1)earth moves; (2)damper, sensor,
spring, hinge and air move; (3)pendulum responds to forces of
acceleration from damper, sensor, spring, hinge, and air. Once moving,
the pendulum begins integrating all the instantaneous forces which will
increase at different rates, and will not stop relative to earth until
all the absorbed energy has been dissipated, which will not occur until
some time period after the earth motion has stopped. This time delay
is dramatic if one watches an in-car pendulum while stopping the car.
There seems to be some logic in classifying a sensor by when peak output
is reached relative to pendulum velocity as measured against earth. A
strain gage mounted on the side of a flexible pendulum arm should be a
pure acceleration measure. A magnetic system can be closely coupled an
be an acceleration system, or could be lightly coupled with very little
effect on the velocity of the pendulum. A capacity measuring position
indicator would have a negligible force couple to the pendulum but not a
zero force because a conductor or dielectric will be pulled into the
space between the fixed plates proportional to the applied voltage. With
negligible coupling, capacity sensors would be position indicators.
Direct coupled sensors appear to cover nearly the entire range between
sensing acceleration and sensing displacement.
Amateur seismology is certainly a good way to experiment and learn
physics. Thanks to you and several other very knowledgeable people for
making this hobby very worthwhile and enjoyable.
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Subject: Re: Digest from 01/21/2007 00:00:40
From: Randall Peters
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 2007 09:47:19 -0500
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Roger, I have respnded to your request for help; i.e.,
"This brings up a very important point--what is the pendulum sensor
reading? Is it acceleration, velocity, or displacement? I need help here. "
With all the confusion as to how a seismometer functions, one has to wonder if Einstein was
the only one who ever acquired a complete conceptual
mastery of inertia. His principle of relativity states that the ``laws of physics remain the
same for any non-accelerating frame of reference''. In
practical terms, this equivalence of inertial reference frames means that it is impossible
to detect uniform motion on the basis of measurements
conducted inside a box, such as a seismometer. Thus the only feature of motion having any
importance whatsoever to a seismometer is acceleration
of the case that supports its inertial mass M. It is very common to erroneously believe that
any type motion of the case will be met with displacement
of M relative to the case, because of the inertia of M. Be sure to understand that the only
property of the motion that is ``resisted'' by M is the
acceleration. Thus the acceleration is the only thing that can be directly measured!!
Velocity and position, the other kinematic variables so frequently
discussed in seismology, can only be inferred from the acceleration measurement. Unlike the
quintessential acceleration, they cannot be directly
measured, even though they are frequently specified.
The output from a seismometer is directly proportional to acceleration, as long as the
acceleration takes place at a frequency
lower than the natural (eigen) frequency of the instrument, and additionally, it is
operating with damping that is near critical. When the frequency of
the drive is higher than the natural frequency of the instrument, the response of the
instrument is attenuated by the ratio of the square of the drive
frequency to the square of the eigenfrequency. If one is talking about the ground
displacement, as opposed to the acceleration, just the opposite
behavior is found. For those who want to believe that a seismometer responds directly to
ground displacement, complete confusion results.
It is also important to note that the horizontal seismometer, such as a pendulum,
responds to more than one type of acceleration. From ``inside the
box'' of the instrument there is no way to distinguish between these two forms of
acceleration, which are (i) horizontal acceleration of the instrument,
and (ii) changes in orientation of the box (tilt) relative to the direction of the local
field of the earth g of the earth, having the magnitude of 9.8 m/s2.
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